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Citation & Documentation

MLA In-Text Citations

Direct Quotes & Paraphrasing

MLA Style uses quoting, paraphrasing, and summarizing to cite a source in text. Both parenthetical and signal phrases are accepted forms for citing the author. 

After a quote, add parentheses containing the authors name and a page number (if any)

Example: “The bullfrog is capable of performing enormous leaps, and it can jump several feet to seize an approaching dragonfly, butterfly, or moth” (Wrigley 115).

An alternative means to cite the source is a signal phrase

Example: As Gordon Wrigley writes, “The bullfrog is capable of performing enormous leaps, and it can jump several feet to seize an approaching dragonfly, butterfly, or moth” (115).

Indirect Quotes

Indirect source Format

Indirect source: A source cited within another source.

Primary source: The source in which the quote was originally from.

Indirect source:  The source that cited a quote from another work.

Example:

Primary source: Marcel Proust

Indirect source: Wolf

In-text Citation:

As Marcel Proust reminisced: "There are perhaps no days of our childhood we lived so fully as those . . . we spent with a favourite book (qtd. in Wolf 6).

Works Cited Page

In the works cited page you would include the citation of the indirect source and not the primary source, unless you are able to find the primary source of the quote. If you find the primary source, you can include that in your Works Cited.

 

 

Basic Citation Styles

Type of Citation In-Text Citation
One author Signal or parentheses with author and page number
Two authors Name both in signal or parentheses
Three or more authors Name first author followed by et al.
Two of more works by same author Reference the works in signal phrase and author in parentheses 
Organization or Government Name in Signal or parentheses, shorten known or long names
Author Unknown Reference the source with shortened title in quote

Source: MLA Handbook. 8th ed., MLA, 2016.