Skip to Main Content
It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results.

Citation & Documentation

APA Reference Guide

Books and Reference Works

Books and Reference Works (Print and Online)
Author or Editor Date Title Publisher Information DOI or URL
Author, A. A. (Year). Title of book. Publisher Name. https://doi.org/xxxx
Author, A. A., & Author, B.B. Title of book (2nd ed., Vol. 4). First Publisher Name; Second Publisher Name. https://xxxxx
Name of Group. Title of book [Audiobook].    
Editor, E. E. (Ed.). Title of book (E. E. Editor, Ed.). 
Editor, E. E., & Editor, F. F. (Eds.). Title of book (T. Translator, Trans.; N. Narrator, Narr.).

A note on eBooks and audiobooks: You do not need to note that you used an eBook or an audiobook unless the content is different from the physical version of the text.

A book with one author:

Vliet, K. A. (2020). Alligators: The illustrated guide to their biology, behavior, and conservation. Johns Hopkins University Press.

A book with multiple authors:

Williams, J. D., Johnson, N. A., Warren, G. L., & Williams, J. D. (2014). Freshwater mussels of Florida. University of Alabama Press.

When a work has three to twenty authors, list all authors by their last names and initials, separating each author with a comma. The last name will be preceded by an ampersand.

If there are more than twenty authors, list the first nineteen authors' names. Then use an ellipsis to indicate the omission of some names, ending with the final author's name. The final name will not be preceded by an ampersand.

When abbreviating the word, "edition," use "ed.". When abbreviating the word, "Editor," use "Ed.".

 

Book  Author, A. A., (Year). Title. City, State: Publisher.
Book Accessed Online Author, A. A., (Year). Title. Retrieved from http://xxxxx.com/xxx.
Chapter in an Edited Book Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year). Title of chapter. In C. C. Editor & D. dD. Editor (Eds.), Title of book (xx ed., Vol. xx, pp. xxx-xxx). Location: Publisher. 
Authored Book Author, A. A. (Year). Title of book (xx ed., Vol. xx). Location: Publisher.
Edited Book Editor, E. E. (Ed.). (Year). Title of book (xx ed., Vol. xx). Location: Publisher.
E-Book  Author. A. A., (Year). Title. [Ebook platform version] Retrieved from http://xxxx/com/xxx.

 

Periodicals

Periodicals (Prints and Online)
Author Date Title Periodical Information DOI or URL
Author, A. A.  (Year). Title of article. Title of Periodical, 34(2), 5-14. https://doi.org/xxxx
Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year, Month). Title of Periodical, 2(1-2), Article 12. https://xxxxx
Name of Group. (Year, Month, Day). Title of Periodical.  
Author, C. C. [username].    
Username

Sample References:

An article with one author in an online journal from an academic database:

Goedeke, T. L. (2004). In the eye of the beholder: Changing social perceptions of the Florida manatee. Society & Animals, 12(2), 99-116. https://doi.org/10.1163/1568530041446562
 

An article with two authors in an online journal from an academic database:

Li, Y., & Xie, Y. (2020). Is a picture worth a thousand words?: An empirical study of image content and social media engagement. Journal of Marketing Research, 57(1), 1-19. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022243719881113
Periodicals (Prints and Online)
Author Date Title Periodical Information DOI or URL
Author, A. A.  (Year). Title of article. Title of Periodical, 34(2), 5-14. doi: xx.xxxx/x
Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year, Month). Title of Periodical, 2(1-2), Article 12. Retrieved from https://xxxxx
Name of Group. (Year, Month, Day). Title of Periodical.  
Author, C. C. [username].    
Username

Sample References:

An article with one author in an online journal from an academic database:

Goedeke, T. L. (2004). In the eye of the beholder: Changing social perceptions of the Florida manatee. Society & Animals, 12(2), 99-116. doi:10.1163/1568530041446562
 

An article with two authors in an online journal from an academic database:

Li, Y., & Xie, Y. (2020). Is a picture worth a thousand words?: An empirical study of image content and social media engagement. Journal of Marketing Research, 57(1), 1-19. doi:10.1177/0022243719881113

Edited Book Chapters and Entries in Reference Works

Edited Book Chapters and Entries in Reference Works (Print and Online)
Author Date Title Edited Book Information DOI or URL
Author, A. A.  (Year). Title of chapter In E. E. Editor (Ed.), Title of book (pp. 3-13). Publisher Name. https://doi.org/xxxx
Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. In E. E. Editor (Ed.), Title of book (3rd ed., Vol 2, pp. 212-255). Publisher Name. https://xxxxx
 
Name of Group

Chapter in an edited book without a DOI, from an academic database:

Telesford, A., Beachum, F. D., & McCray, C. R. (2019). What school leaders can do to provide quality education for young children with autism. In F. E. Obiakor, T. Banks, J. Graves, & A. F. Rotatori (Eds.), Educating young children with and without exceptionalities: New perspectives (pp. 61-77). Information Age Publishing.

Chapter in an edited book with a DOI, from an academic database:

Yau, J. C., Sun, B. T., & Moreno, J. (2020). Addicting content, blue light, and curtailed sleep: The ABCs of social media use and sleep. In M. Desjarlais (Ed.), The psychology and dynamics behind social media interactions (pp. 211-40). IGI Global. https://doi.org/10.4018/978-1-5225-9412-3 

Edited Book Chapters and Entries in Reference Works (Print and Online)
Author Date Title Edited Book Information DOI or URL
Author, A. A.  (Year). Title of Chapter In E. E. Editor (Ed.), Title of book (pp. 3-13). Publisher Name. doi: xx.xxxx/x
Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. In E. E. Editor (Ed.), Title of book (3rd ed., Vol 2, pp. 212-255). Publisher Name. Retrieved from https://xxxxx
 
Name of Group

Reports and Gray Literature

Reports and Gray Literature (Prints and Online)
Author Date Title Publisher Information DOI or URL
Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year). Title of report. Publisher Name. https://doi.org/xxxx
Name of Group. (Year, Month Day). Title of report (Report No. 123). https://xxxxx
Title of gray literature [Description].

What is "gray literature"?

Gray literature is a term for the body of literature that includes sources which “cover original research, but they may or may not be peer reviewed” (American Psychological Association, 2019, p. 329). Gray literature includes such works as government reports, technical reports, annual reports, press releases, grants, and policy briefs.

Report by a government agency or other organization:

National Cancer Institute. (2018). Chemotherapy and you (NIH Publication No. 18-7157). U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institute of Health. https://www.cancer.gov/publications/patient-education/chemotherapy-and-you.pdf

Press release:

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2021, March 8). CDC issues first set of guidelines on how fully vaccinated people can visit safely with others [Press release]. https://www.cdc.gov/media/releases/2021/p0308-vaccinated-guidelines.html

Reports and Gray Literature (Prints and Online)
Author Date Title Publisher Information DOI or URL
Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year). Title of report. Publisher Name. doi: xx.xxxx/x
Name of Group. (Year, Month Day). Title of report (Report No. 123). Retrieved from https://xxxxx
Title of gray literature [Description].

What is "gray literature"?

Gray literature is a term for the body of literature that includes sources which “cover original research, but they may or may not be peer reviewed” (American Psychological Association, 2019, p. 329). Gray literature includes such works as government reports, technical reports, annual reports, press releases, grants, and policy briefs.

Reviews

Reviews (Print and Online)
Author Date Review Title Details of Reviewed Work Periodical Information DOI or URL
Reviewer, A. A. (Year). Title of review. [Review of the book Book Title, by A. A. Author]. Periodical Title, 34(2). 14-15. https://doi.org/xxxx
(Year, Month Day) [Review of the book Book Title, by E. E. Editor, Ed.]. Blog Title https://xxxxx
[Review of the film Film Title, by D. D. Director, Dir.].    
[Review of the TV series episode "Episode Title," by W. W. Writer, Writer, & D. D. Director, Dir.].
Reviews (Print and Online)
Author Date Review Title Details of Reviewed Work Periodical Information DOI or URL
Reviewer, A. A. (Year). Title of review. [Review of the book Book Title, by A. A. Author]. Periodical Title, 34(2). 14-15. doi:xx.xxxx/xx
(Year, Month Day) [Review of the book Book Title, by E. E. Editor, Ed.]. Blog Title Retrieved from https://xxxxx
[Review of the film Film Title, by D. D. Director, Dir.].    
[Review of the TV series episode "Episode Title," by W. W. Writer, Writer, & D. D. Director, Dir.].