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Citation & Documentation

Social Media Content

Social Media Content
Author Date Title Social media site name URL
Twitter and Instagram: Author, A. A. [@username]. (n.d.). Content of the post up to the first 20 words. Site Name. https://xxxx
Name of Group [@username]. (Year, Month Day). Content of the post up to the first 20 words [Description of audiovisuals]. Retrieved Month Day, Year, from https://xxxx
Facebook and others: Author, A. A. [Description of audiovisuals].
Name of Group.
Name of Group [Username].
Username.

Sample References:

A Tweet (with audiovisual material):

Paddington [@paddingtonbear]. (2019, November 13). I wonder how many times I can say 'please' and 'thank you' today. #WorldKindnessDay [Video attached]. [Tweet]. Twitter. https://twitter.com/paddingtonbear/status/1194547213176844288

An Instagram post:

Bookstore Cats [@bookstorecats]. (2020, March 10). Mind the till when Tucker is around!!!! [Photograph]. Instagram. https://www.instagram.com/p/B9jXVd7g1UC/

Webpages and Websites

Webpages and Websites
Author Date Title Website name URL
Author, A. A. (Year). Title of work. Site Name. https://xxxxx
Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year, Month). Retrieved Month Day, Year, from https://xxxxx
Name of Group. (Year, Month Day).
(n.d.).

When do I include a retrieval date?

The APA Publication Manual (APA, 2019) suggests including a retrieval date for those sources whose content is designed to change and/or updates frequently, and the page itself is unarchived (p. 290). Such sources include dictionary entries, Facebook and other social media pages, maps on Google Maps, etc. (APA, 2019, p. 290).

Sample References:

Webpage with a group author:

American Osteopathic Association. (2020). The benefits of yoga. https://osteopathic.org/what-is-osteopathic-medicine/benefits-of-yoga/

NOTE: When the site name is the same as the author, as in the example above, you should omit the site name to avoid repetition.

Webpage with a single author:

McCall, T. (2017, April 12). 38 health benefits of yoga. Yoga Journal. https://www.yogajournal.com/lifestyle/count-yoga-38-ways-yoga-keeps-fit