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Citation & Documentation

Online Videos (including YouTube)


Producer, P.P. (Producer). (Year). Title of video [Description of form]. Retrieved from URL


AsapScience (Producer). (2013). What if you stopped sleeping? [YouTube video].

         Retreieved from


Films Media Group (Producer). (2010). Why do we talk? The science of speech.

         [BBC World Wide Ltd. film]. Retrieved from




Producer, P. (Producer). (Date). Title of episode. Name of podcast. Podcast retrieved from URL


WNYC (Producer). (2013, Sept. 25). Gun rights and Starbucks; library awards; Miss

         Manners. The Brian Lehrer Show. Podcast retrieved from 


Email/Personal Communication

E-mail and other forms of personal communication are generally not included in the reference list. Cite them in-text only, giving the name of the communicator and the date.


(B.K. Jones, personal communication, May 10, 2012)

The same goes for electronic forms of communication as well, including discussion forums and blog posts. Use your judgement. If you choose to include these sources in your reference list, they should have some scholarly relevance.

Blogs Posts, Discussion Boards, & Wikis

Blog Posts & Discussion Boards


Author, A. A. (or username if real name is not available) (Date of post). Title/comment [description]. Retrieved from URL


Beavan, C. (2012, November 19). No impact man runs for office [Web log post].

         Retrieved from


EdieB37. (2013, July 1). DRM rights with Musicmatch [Online forum comment].

         Retrieved from




The APA Style Guide warns that most wikis, due to their collaborative nature, cannot guarantee the expertise of their entries.


Entry title. (Date of publication, n.d. if no date listed). Retrieved from Wiki name: URL


American Civil Liberties Union. (n.d.). Retrieved from


Twitter & Facebook

In the same way that personal communication is not considered scholarly, posts from social media cites are generally not included in the reference list. Cite them in-text only by  giving the URL in parentheses. This example is given in the APA Style Blog (


President Obama uses Twitter ( and Facebook ( to keep citizens up to speed on his initiatives, especially health care reform and Supreme Court nominations. 


HOWEVER, if you choose to cite information from a particular post, you will need the in-text citation as well as a reference list entry. These examples also come from the APA Style Blog (


BarackObama. (2009a, July 15). Launched American Graduation Initiative to help

         additional 5 mill. Americans graduate college by 2020:

         [Twitter post]. Retrieved from


Barack Obama. (2009b, October 9). Humbled.

         [Facebook update]. Retrieved from 



These formats are not in APA's published manual. However, these are the suggested formats until the guidelines are updated. We encourage you to visit the APA Style blog to see the rationale for formating these citations in this way.