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Citation & Documentation

Online Videos (including YouTube)

Format:

Producer, P.P. (Producer). (Year). Title of video [Description of form]. Retrieved from URL

Example:

AsapScience (Producer). (2013). What if you stopped sleeping? [YouTube video].

         Retreieved from http://youtu.be/nNhDkKAvxFk

Example:

Films Media Group (Producer). (2010). Why do we talk? The science of speech.

         [BBC World Wide Ltd. film]. Retrieved from http://ezproxy.vccs.edu:2048/login?

         url=http://digital.films.com/PortalPlaylists.aspx?aid=7544&xtid=41380

Podcasts

Format:

Producer, P. (Producer). (Date). Title of episode. Name of podcast. Podcast retrieved from URL

Example:

WNYC (Producer). (2013, Sept. 25). Gun rights and Starbucks; library awards; Miss

         Manners. The Brian Lehrer Show. Podcast retrieved from 

         http://www.wnyc.org/story/the-brian-lehrer-show-2013-09-19/

 

Email/Personal Communication

E-mail and other forms of personal communication are generally not included in the reference list. Cite them in-text only, giving the name of the communicator and the date.

Example:

(B.K. Jones, personal communication, May 10, 2012)

The same goes for electronic forms of communication as well, including discussion forums and blog posts. Use your judgement. If you choose to include these sources in your reference list, they should have some scholarly relevance.

Blogs Posts, Discussion Boards, & Wikis

Blog Posts & Discussion Boards

Format:

Author, A. A. (or username if real name is not available) (Date of post). Title/comment [description]. Retrieved from URL

Example:

Beavan, C. (2012, November 19). No impact man runs for office [Web log post].

         Retrieved from http://noimpactman.typepad.com

Example:

EdieB37. (2013, July 1). DRM rights with Musicmatch [Online forum comment].

         Retrieved from http://forums.cnet.com/digital-music-forum/?

         tag=contentMain;contentBody

 

Wikis

The APA Style Guide warns that most wikis, due to their collaborative nature, cannot guarantee the expertise of their entries.

Format:

Entry title. (Date of publication, n.d. if no date listed). Retrieved from Wiki name: URL

Example:

American Civil Liberties Union. (n.d.). Retrieved from

         Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aclu

Twitter & Facebook

In the same way that personal communication is not considered scholarly, posts from social media cites are generally not included in the reference list. Cite them in-text only by  giving the URL in parentheses. This example is given in the APA Style Blog (http://blog.apastyle.org/apastyle/2009/10/how-to-cite-twitter-and-facebook-part-i.html)

Example:

President Obama uses Twitter (http://www.twitter.com/barackobama) and Facebook (http://www.facebook.com/barackobama) to keep citizens up to speed on his initiatives, especially health care reform and Supreme Court nominations. 

 

HOWEVER, if you choose to cite information from a particular post, you will need the in-text citation as well as a reference list entry. These examples also come from the APA Style Blog (http://blog.apastyle.org/apastyle/2009/10/how-to-cite-twitter-and-facebook-part-ii.html).

Example:

BarackObama. (2009a, July 15). Launched American Graduation Initiative to help

         additional 5 mill. Americans graduate college by 2020: http://bit.ly/gcTX7

         [Twitter post]. Retrieved from

         http://twitter.com/BarackObama/status/2651151366 

Example:


Barack Obama. (2009b, October 9). Humbled.

         http://my.barackobama.com/page/community/post/obamaforamerica/gGM45m

         [Facebook update]. Retrieved from http://www.facebook.com/posted.php? 

         id=6815841748&share_id=154954250775&comments=1#s154954250775

 

These formats are not in APA's published manual. However, these are the suggested formats until the guidelines are updated. We encourage you to visit the APA Style blog to see the rationale for formating these citations in this way.